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What Is The Most Important Farm Machinery

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  • Most Important Farm Machinery, Agricultural Machinery, What is Agriculture Machinery, Farm machinery used for soil cultivation, Farm machinery used for planting
  • Posted date:
  • 05-07-2022
What Is The Most Important Farm Machinery

What are the things to consider in selecting farm machinery? We look at how to choose the right agricultural machinery and what factors affect the size of machinery needed.


The most popular Agricultural Machinery

1. Cultivator

Cultivators are used to break up and mix the upper layer of topsoil. This machine helps to aerate the soil (putting holes into the ground), in turn, increasing the number of nutrients the soil receives and improving crop yields. They are also used to kill weeds after crops have been planted, to prevent stunted crop growth.

 

2. Planter

This piece of equipment is incredibly useful for farmers as it helps by depositing seeds into prepared soil. Planting seeds was traditionally done by hand, however, this was an incredibly lengthy and labour intensive task. Farmers are now able to tow the planters/seeders using tractors, covering large areas in a shorter amount of time. The planters are aligned into rows, each varying in width, to release the seeds to the precise planting spot.      

 

3. Field Sprayer

Herbicides and pesticides protect crops from insects and pests. Large field sprayers can be utilised to disperse these chemicals effectively, these units spray the liquid-based fluid evenly over the crops. The sprayer is generally pulled by a tractor, although smaller or self-driven units are available for varying costs. 

4. Harvester

These larger motorised machines are used to gather crops for harvest, with different front attachments depending on the type of crop being gathered.

Harvesters are versatile machines with various purposes, for instance, a combined harvester, used for grain, can complete three jobs at the same time- reaping, threshing and winnowing.

There are specific harvest machines for potatoes, corn, beans, carrots and more. Moreover, the gathered crops leave behind the straw, which is then gathered into bales for livestock feed.

 

5. Tractor 

The most universal, efficient and commonly used agricultural machine is easily the tractor. From seed planting, cultivation of land, and tilling to pest control, tractors can be used for almost any job on the farm. 

Depending on the size of the farm, and specific farming needs, there is a myriad of sizes that vary in power. From a smaller four-wheel garden type to a twelve-wheel tractor for covering large acres. Selecting the correct size and type of tractor will maximize output and allow for more efficient farm work.

 

What is Agriculture Machinery?

Agricultural machinery refers to the machines used for various farming tasks, from large equipment like tractors to hand tools. Both non-organic and organic farming use agricultural machinery.

Below we describe the various types of farm machines, their uses and their importance.

 

Importance of Farm Machinery

Agricultural machinery installed with high-end technology has dramatically reduced the labour required for various farming challenges. In turn, this equipment helps reduces the overall farming time and labour costs, with all tasks completed efficiently by farm machines on time.

Farmers should consider investing in new agricultural machines, and respective maintenance costs when debating an expansion of farm operations, rather than increased salaries incurred from additional labour.

Agricultural machines can deliver the desired crops to the needed quantity, much better than traditionally done by hand and horse-drawn tools. In turn, improving the quality of goods yielded, producing more consistent crop yields.

 

Farm machinery used for soil cultivation

Cultivator:

As discussed above, Cultivators are used to break up (pulverise) and mix (stir) the soil before planting begins. In addition to aerating and loosening soil after harvesting.

Cultivators are operated by a tractor, and often have retractable hydraulic wings to allow safe driving on roads. They are also able to mix soil deeper into the ground than a harrow, which is generally not powered. 

 

Cultipacker:

This machine crushes big clots of dirt, reduces air pockets and helps compress small stones to produce a smoother and firmer seedbed. Cultipacker exclusively refers to ridged rollers, as smooth or ridged rollers can be described as land or field rollers.

 

Plough:

A plough is used in the preparation of sowing seeds for the initial soil cultivation. Ploughing aims to turn over the upper layer of soil to bring fresh nutrients to the surface, in turn aerating the soil and increasing the moisture retention ability. 

 

Rotary tiller: 

A rotary tiller is a motorized grower, otherwise known as a revolving hoe, power tiller, rotavator or rotary plough. This agricultural machine is either pulled behind a tractor or driven by itself, with the rotary tiller's spinning blades working the soil. 

 

Strip-till: 

Strip-till is a method to minimally till strips of soil ready for sowing, the machine uses a knife-like apparatus, such as a fertilizer injection shank.

The soil drying and heating advantages of traditional tillage are combined with the no-till and soil-protecting advantages of not disrupting large areas of soil.

Multiple trips and some particular tools are needed for tillage depending on the size and conditions of the field, as well as the tillage tool used. Generally, strip-tilled rows are around 8-10 inches wide.

 

Harrows: 

Ground surface cultivation is completed using harrow machinery, unlike the plough, which provides deep cultivation, the harrow breaks up lumps of soil to provide a cleaner finish with a soil structure ideal for sowing.

Additionally, after sowing the crops harrowing can be completed to kill the weeds and cover crops. The three key types of harrows include; drag harrows, spike harrows and disc harrows.

 

Farm machinery used for planting:

Seed drill: 

A seed drill is used to continuously place seeds at a controlled depth at a uniform rate, either with or without the format to cover seeds with soil.

This agricultural machine ensures that seeds are evenly distributed at the exact depth and rate. Covering seeds with soil after sowing prevents them from drying out or being snacked on by animals and pests.


Broadcast seeder: 

This is a hand-driven agricultural machine, the broadcast seeder is also known as a spreader or fertilizer spreader. Broadcast seeders are a commonly used machine for cropping, liming and fertilizing crops, lime and fertilising. Furthermore, the machine can be used to spread ice melt.

 

Seed cum fertilizer drill:

A seed drill is typically used to spread seeds across the field, and with an attachment, the drill can also drop and spread fertilizer. These drills have a wider seed box that is divided lengthwise into two chambers, one for fertilizer and one for seeds. Seed drills are categorised as either; Drawn Bullock, or Drawn Tractor.

 

Farm Machinery types used for irrigation

Irrigation refers to the spraying of water over crops for further growth, it can be completed using several machines or equipment. The chosen machine will be based on the farmer's available finances and the water source.

 

Fire sprinkler system:

To effectively protect your crops from fires, a fire sprinkler system can be installed. The sprinkler supplied water and provides pressure and a flow rate to spread across the field. 

 

Centre Irrigation:

Simply put, irritation artificially conveys water to soil to encourage growth, this is especially important for dryer areas with limited rainfall. 

 

Farm Machinery for Harvesting and Threshing

Harvesting machinery, as the name suggests, is simply used to harvest crops. Several harvesting machines can be used, with them being categorised based on plant. We list some of the available harvesting tools below;

 

Combine harvester:

This machine combines multiple farming operations including; planting, threshing and cleaning grain crops. Combine harvesters mainly focus on planting corn, flax, soybeans and oats. 

 

Sickle: 

Usually, a sickle is used for grain crop harvests, and for cutting the grass to produce hay for livestock feed. It's a handheld farming tool with a curved shape.

 

Mower: 

A household name, the mower isn't only used on farms but for residential areas, and council-owned fields. This machine is used to cut plants or grass, and it can be hand-operated, steam-powered or animal-drawn.

 

Reaper: 

A reaper is a farm tool, or person, which cuts down and gathers crops for harvest. Cereal grass is the main crop that this machine is used for, with the reaper being either powered by a tractor or tiller.

 

Conveyor belt:

Conveyor belts are used to carry items to another location. The main type of conveyor system is a belt conveyor system consisting of two or more pulleys (drums) running on an endless loop.

Typically, one or more of the pulleys are powered, automatically moving the materials towards the end of the belt. The pulley driving the belt is referred to as a 'drive pulley' and the other pulley is the 'idle pulley'.

 

Crop harvesting machine: 

Crop harvesting machines are designed to harvest forage crops on the field or in the upland, as well as forming bales of hay. 

 

Vegetable harvesting machine:

Many machines offer vegetable harvesting by adjusting the settings of other crop harvesting machines, or new purchases.

 


If you work in the agricultural industry in Scotland, you can find a range of agricultural machinery for hire. For agricultural contracting in Aberdeenshire and North Scotland follow this link to find out more.